Education Secretary Nicky Morgan said the government wished to ensure all pupils achieved their full potential.
The report, Will We Ever Have A Fair Education?, says educational unfairness starts before children even start school, with poorer five-year-olds less ready for learning than their more affluent peers.
The Fair Education Alliance was launched in June, with 25 organisations including businesses, education charities, trade unions and campaign groups pledged to work to "significantly narrow the achievement gap between young people from our poorest communities and their wealthier peers by 2022".
The alliance promises to monitor progress made every year against its five fair-education targets.
This is the first "report card" and the authors say it "shows a worrying picture".
"Against every single fair-education impact goal there is a significant gap between the most and least deprived," it says, and the gaps are "even bigger" than anticipated.
The five national targets aim to narrow the gaps between rich and poor from "cradle to career".
- At primary school, poorer pupils are half as likely to meet expected numeracy and literacy standards.
- At GCSE, 65% of wealthier pupils get five good grades while 63% of poorer pupils do not.
- At 16, poorer pupils are twice as likely not to be in employment, education or training.
- At 18, richer pupils are four times more likely to attend the most selective universities.
- Throughout education, poorer pupils are more than twice as likely to be excluded.